Human Digestive System Parts & Function: Easy To Learn And Take Notes

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Human Digestive System and Function is a complex process involving the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and associated glands. These organs work together to break down food, extract nutrients, and eliminate waste, ensuring proper digestion and absorption in the body.

If you are a class 7 to board 10th student this Human Digestive System Notes will help you more to understand, learn fast and taking notes so that you can revise again.

Human Digestive System Function

The digestion process starts in the mouth and ends in the small intestine, while the large intestine absorbs water and facilitates bacterial fermentation of indigestible materials.

Food particles travel through the gastrointestinal tract, undergoing step-by-step digestion in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, aided by enzymes and bile.

The large intestine absorbs water and promotes fermentation before elimination.

How Do Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Notes


  • Taking in food and liquids into the body.
  • Mouth:
  • Teeth and tongue help break down food into smaller pieces.
  • Salivary glands produce saliva:
    • Saliva moistens food.
    • Saliva contains enzymes for digesting carbohydrates.

Mixing and Movement:

  • Food moves down the esophagus to the stomach.
  • Swallowing propels food using peristalsis:
    • Coordinated muscular contractions.


  • Stomach:
  • Gastric glands secrete gastric juice:
    • Contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin.
    • Breaks down proteins and creates an acidic environment.
  • Stomach secretes mucus to protect its lining.


  • Breaking down complex food molecules into smaller substances.
  • Stomach:
    • Muscular contractions mix food and gastric secretions:
      • Forms semi-liquid chyme.
  • Small Intestine:
    • Pancreas secretes pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate ions:
      • Enzymes break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
      • Bicarbonate ions neutralize acidic chyme.
  • Liver produces bile:
    • Bile emulsifies fats for digestion and absorption.


  • Primarily occurs in the small intestine.
  • Small Intestine:
    • Inner lining has villi:
      • Finger-like projections increasing surface area.
    • Nutrients absorbed through villi into the bloodstream.
  • Large Intestine (Colon):
    • Absorbs water, electrolytes, and vitamins.


  • Elimination of waste material from the body.
  • Large Intestine (Colon):
    • Absorbs water and salts, forming feces.
  • Rectum:
    • Stores feces.
  • Anus:
    • Feces eliminated through defecation.

Parts of the Human Digestive System & Function

In the human digestive system, each part has a specific function that contributes to the overall process of digestion, absorption, and waste elimination.

Digestive System PartFunction
MouthBreaks down food through chewing and mixes it with saliva.
EsophagusTransports food from the mouth to the stomach using peristalsis.
StomachSecretes gastric juices to break down proteins and mix food into chyme.
Small IntestineDigests and absorbs nutrients from food.
Receives digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver.
Absorb nutrients into the bloodstream through villi.
PancreasProduces digestive enzymes for carbohydrate, protein, and fat digestion.
LiverProduces bile to emulsify fats for digestion.
GallbladderStores and releases bile into the small intestine.
Large Intestine (Colon)Absorbs water, electrolytes, and vitamins from undigested food.
RectumStores feces until elimination.
AnusEliminates feces from the body through defecation.

Secretion, Source and Function In Human Digestive System

These secretions play vital roles in the digestive process, ensuring that food is broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy and nourishment.

SalivaSalivary glandsMoistens food, contains enzymes for carbohydrate digestion
Gastric juiceStomachContains hydrochloric acid and enzymes for protein digestion, creates an acidic environment
MucusStomachProtects the stomach lining from the acidic gastric juice
Pancreatic enzymesPancreasDigests carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the small intestine
BileLiverAids in the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine
Intestinal enzymesSmall intestineAssist in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Intestinal juiceSmall intestineContains enzymes that further break down nutrients for absorption
MucusSmall intestineProvides lubrication and protects the intestinal lining

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