Natural Resources Notes | GSEB Class 10 S.S Ch 08 Notes

Natural Resources Notes
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Today, we present comprehensive notes for GSEB Class 10 Board Chapter 8 on Natural Resources.

Not all elements are resources; only those utilized by humans with knowledge and expertise become resources.

Resources fulfill human needs and require physical and intellectual ability to use. Minerals, once unknown, became resources with technology and understanding.

Resources require utility and usability, and are born from the interaction of nature, humans, and culture.

Explore these insights for a thorough preparation for your upcoming exam.

Last 5 GSEB Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Solution PDF

Natural Resources Introduction Notes

Definition of Resources:

  • Human needs are satisfied through resources.
  • Not all elements in nature are resources; only those utilized by humans with special knowledge are considered resources.

Characteristics of Resources:

  • Resources are things on which humans are dependent.
  • Human needs can be fulfilled by resources when there is both physical and intellectual capacity to utilize them.
  • A resource is anything used to fulfill human needs.

Evolution of Resource Perception:

  • In ancient times, certain elements (like minerals) weren’t recognized as resources due to lack of knowledge.
  • Today, minerals are valuable resources because of advanced mining techniques and understanding their utility.

Criteria for Natural Resources:

  • Natural resources must possess utility and the ability to be effectively utilized.
  • Example: Minerals, once overlooked, are now essential due to their usefulness and mining technology.

Interaction of Three Elements:

  • Resources are a result of interactions between
    • Nature,
    • Man, and
    • Culture.
  • The interplay of these three factors contributes to the formation and significance of resources.


  • Resources are not just things in nature; they become resources when humans can use them.
  • Minerals were not considered resources in ancient times but are crucial today.
  • Natural resources must be both useful and workable.

Key Terms:

  • Resources: Elements utilized by humans to fulfill needs.
  • Utility: The usefulness of a resource.
  • Interaction: The interconnection of Nature, Man, and Culture in resource formation.

Use Of Resources Notes

Resources are crucial for the functioning of daily activities, industries, and the overall progress of society.

#1: Resource as Food:

  • Examples:
    • Fruits from natural growth
    • Crops from agriculture
    • Milk and its products
    • Meat from domestic animals
    • Fish and aquatic animals from reservoirs
    • Honey produced by honey-bees

#2: Resource as Raw Material:

  • Examples:
    • Goods from forests
    • Agro-products
    • Wool, hides, and meat from animals
    • Mineral ores
  • Role:
    • These serve as raw materials for various industries.

#3: Resource as Energy Resources:

  • Examples:
    • Coal, petroleum, natural gas as fuel
    • Renewable sources: solar insolation, wind, sea waves, tides, ebbs, waterfalls
  • Application:
    • Used in both industries and domestic settings.


  • Resources serve as food, raw materials, and energy sources.
  • Fruits, crops, milk, meat, and aquatic products are examples of resources used as food.
  • Forest goods, agro-products, and mineral ores are raw materials for industries.
  • Energy resources include fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and renewable sources.

Key Terms:

  • Raw Material: Substances used in the production of goods.
  • Renewable Sources: Energy sources that can be naturally replenished.
  • Fossil Fuels: Non-renewable energy sources like coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

Types Of Resources

Resources are classified as follows:

  • On the basis of ownership
  • On the basis of distribution centres
  • On the basis of re-availability

Resources On the basis of ownership

Individual ResourceOwned by an individual or a familyLand, building, personal belongings
National ResourceOwned by a country or a regionArmy, natural reserves, international trade
Global ResourceAll physical or non-physical resources for human welfareResources of common ownership for all nations worldwide

Resources On the basis of Distribution Area

According to Distribution AreaDetailsExamples
Universal ResourcesUseful gases in the atmosphereOxygen, nitrogen
Generally Available ResourcesEasily availableLand, Soil, Water, Pasture land
Rare ResourcesAvailable at limited placesMinerals like coal, petroleum, copper, gold, uranium
Solitary ResourcesMinerals available only at one or two placesChryolite (available only in Greenland)

On the basis of re-availability

RenewableReproduce themselves as per their usage during a specific time, inexhaustibleSolar insolation, wind, birds, animals, Bioresources
Non-renewableCannot be re-used once used, cannot be reproduced or reformed in the near futureMineral, coal, natural gas, petroleum

Planning and Conversations of Resources

Resource Utilization and Scarcity:

  • Human needs are unlimited, while resources are limited.
  • Over the past century, resource usage has surged due to scientific and technological advancements and population growth.
  • Future consequences could be severe without thoughtful resource management.

Duty to Conserve:

  • It is everyone’s responsibility to conserve resources for future generations.
  • Conservation and rational usage are essential.

Planning and Conservation Steps:

  • Collect data on utilized, unutilized, and potential resources at regional or national levels.
  • Limited or non-renewable resources should be used scientifically and only when necessary.
  • Focus on developing resources with the potential for increased quantity.
  • Economical and readily available resources should be used wisely for future needs.
  • Strict conservation of resources in limited quantity.
  • Seek alternative options through technical advancements.
  • Enact and enforce laws for resource conservation.
  • Educate citizens about rational resource use.
  • Foster public awareness for responsible resource utilization.


  • Human needs are limitless, but resources are finite.
  • Conservation involves rational usage, preservation, and re-usage.
  • Scientific exploitation, resource development, and legal measures are crucial for sustainable resource management.
  • Public awareness plays a key role in responsible resource use.

Key Terms:

  • Conservation: Rational usage, preservation, and re-usage of resources.
  • Sustainable Use: Using resources in a way that meets current needs without compromising future generations.

Soil Formation Notes

  • Definition:
    • Soil is the surface layer of the Earth where vegetation grows.
    • It’s a thin layer composed of minerals, humidity, humus, and air.
    • Formed through denudation, combining biotic remnants, humidity, and air.
  • Components:
    • Minerals, humidity, humus, and air are mixed in the soil.
    • Parental rocks lie below the soil.
  • Vegetation Role:
    • Soil is a natural mixture supporting the growth and development of vegetation.

Definition of Soil:

  • The uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust containing minerals and biotic elements essential for vegetation growth.
  • Soil composition varies, reflecting the mix of parental rocks and vegetation remnants.

Factors Influencing Soil Formation:

  • Denudation:
    • Material from denudation contributes to soil formation.
    • Biotic remnants, humidity, and air mix with denuded material.
  • Humus Formation:
    • Disintegration or decay of vegetation and insects contribute to humus.
    • Humus plays a vital role in vegetation development.
  • Climatic Impact:
    • Climatic conditions during soil formation are crucial.
    • Soil formed from the same rocks varies under different climatic influences.

Types of Soil:

  • ICAR Classification (8 Types):
    • Alluvial Soil
    • Red Soil
    • Black Soil
    • Laterite Soil
    • Desert Soil
    • Mountain Soil
    • Forest Soil
    • Marshy or Peaty Soil
  • Mountain and Forest Soil:
    • Found at different altitudes in mountainous regions.


  • Soil is a thin layer supporting vegetation growth.
  • Components include minerals, humidity, humus, and air.
  • Denudation and climatic impact influence soil formation.
  • Eight types of soil, classified based on various criteria.

Key Terms:

  • Denudation: The process of wearing away the Earth’s surface.
  • Humus: Decomposed organic matter in soil.
  • ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Alluvial Soil Notes

Alluvial soil covers about 43% of India’s total area. Found in the northern plain from Brahmaputra to Satluj and in delta regions of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers.

Formation and Composition:

  • Formation:
    • Formed through alluvial deposition by rivers.
  • Composition:
    • Rich in potash, phosphoric acid, and limestone.
    • Low in nitrogen and humus.

Agricultural Characteristics:

  • Crops:
    • Suitable for a variety of crops.
    • Wheat, paddy, sugarcane, jute, cotton, maize, oilseeds, etc.
  • Nitrogen Stabilization:
    • Growing pulses helps stabilize nitrogen content.

Distribution Areas:

  • Northern plains from Brahmaputra to Satluj.
  • Delta regions of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers.


  • Alluvial soil covers 43% of India’s total area.
  • Formed through alluvial deposition by rivers.
  • Rich in potash, phosphoric acid, and limestone; low in nitrogen and humus.
  • Suitable for wheat, paddy, sugarcane, jute, cotton, maize, oilseeds, etc.
  • Growing pulses helps stabilize nitrogen content.

Key Terms:

  • Alluvial Soil: Covers a significant portion of India, formed by river deposition.
  • Nitrogen Stabilization: Growing certain crops, like pulses, to maintain nitrogen levels in the soil.

Red Soil Notes

Red soil occupies approximately 19% of India’s total land.

Extends from Tamil Nadu in peninsular India to Bundelkhand in the north and from Rajmahal Hills in the east to Kachchh in the west.

Also found in some parts of Rajasthan.

Characteristics and Color:

  • Color:
    • Red in color due to the presence of ferric oxide.
    • Turns yellow as we go deeper.
  • Composition:
    • Absence of lime, gravel, and carbonate.
    • Deficiency of lime, magnesium, phosphet, nitrogen, and potash.

Agricultural Usage:

  • Crops:
    • Suitable for a variety of crops.
    • Millet, cotton, wheat, jowar, linseed, groundnut, potato, etc.


  • Red soil covers about 19% of India’s total land.
  • Found from Tamil Nadu to Bundelkhand and from Rajmahal Hills to Kachchh.
  • Red color due to ferric oxide; becomes yellow with depth.
  • Absence of lime, gravel, and carbonate; deficient in lime, magnesium, phosphet, nitrogen, and potash.
  • Crops like millet, cotton, wheat, jowar, linseed, groundnut, and potato are grown.

Key Terms:

  • Ferric Oxide: Substance responsible for the red color in red soil.
  • Deficiency: Lack or shortage of essential elements in the soil.

Black Soil (Regur Soil) Notes

Black or Regur soil covers approximately 15% of India’s total area.

Formed due to the spreading of Deccan lava.

Found in entire Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka, and certain districts in Gujarat (Surat, Bharuch, Narmada, Vadodara, Tapi, and Dang).

Formation Factors:

  • Formation Contributors:
    • Lava rocks and climate play a significant role in its formation.
  • Composition:
    • Higher proportion of iron, lime, calcium, potash, aluminium, and magnesium carbonates.

Fertility and Moisture Retention:

  • Fertility:
    • Considered quite fertile.
  • Moisture Retention:
    • Has the capacity to retain more moisture.
    • Develops fissures when moisture dries up.

Agricultural Usage:

  • Crops:
    • Suitable for a variety of crops.
    • Cotton, linseed, mustard, groundnut, tobacco, udad.
  • Common Name:
    • Also known as Black Cotton soil due to its suitability for cotton cultivation.


  • Black or Regur soil covers about 15% of India’s total area.
  • Formed from Deccan lava and found in Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka, and certain districts in Gujarat.
  • Higher proportion of iron, lime, calcium, potash, aluminium, and magnesium carbonates.
  • Considered fertile with the ability to retain more moisture.
  • Suitable for crops like cotton, linseed, mustard, groundnut, tobacco, and udad.

Key Terms:

  • Regur Soil: Another name for Black Soil.
  • Fertility: The ability of soil to support plant growth.
  • Moisture Retention: The capacity of soil to retain water.

Laterite Soil Notes

  • Definition:
    • Derived from the Latin word “Later,” meaning brick.
    • Red color due to iron oxide.
    • Becomes smooth when wet, hard when dry.
  • Formation:
    • Result of dry and moist climate changes and prevention of silica-based material.
    • Developed in the higher areas of the peninsular plateau in India.
  • Composition:
    • More iron, potash, and aluminium.
  • Fertility:
    • Less fertile, but crops like cotton, paddy, ragi, sugarcane, tea, coffee, cashew can be grown with fertilizers.

Desert Soil Notes

  • Characteristics:
    • Found in arid or semi-arid climates.
    • Sandy and infertile with more dissolved minerals.
  • Location:
    • Rajasthan, Haryana, Southern Punjab, Kachchh, and parts of Saurashtra in Gujarat.
  • Agriculture:
    • With irrigation, crops like millet and jowar can be cultivated.

Mountain Soil Notes

  • Location:
    • Found in the valley and sloppy regions of the Himalayas at an altitude of 2700 to 3000 meters.
    • Assam, Darjeeling, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Kashmir.
  • Characteristics:
    • Thin and underdeveloped layer.

Forest Soil Notes

  • Location:
    • Altitude between 3000 to 3100 meters.
    • Coniferous forests of the Himalayas, Sahyadri, Eastern Ghats, and the Terai region of the Himalayas.
  • Characteristics:
    • Covered by shaded leaves, upper part becomes black due to increased humus from decaying leaves.
    • Changes color (blue or red) with depth.
  • Crops:
    • Tea, coffee, spices, wheat, maize, barley, paddy.
  • Extent:
    • Found in limited areas.

Marshy or Peaty Soil Notes

  • Formation:
    • Develops in humid regions due to the accumulation of biotic elements.
    • Submerged under water during the rainy season.
  • Composition:
    • Excess of biotic elements and minerals.
    • Insufficiency in phosphate and potash.
  • Location:
    • Odisha, West Bengal, Coastal Tamil Nadu, Central area of Northern Bihar, and Almora district of Uttarakhand.
  • Agriculture:
    • Limited extent, used for paddy cultivation.


  • Laterite soil is derived from “Later,” red due to iron oxide, found in peninsular plateau, less fertile but suitable for various crops with fertilizers.
  • Desert soil is sandy, infertile, found in arid areas; with irrigation, millet and jowar can be grown.
  • Mountain soil is found in the Himalayan region, thin, and underdeveloped.
  • Forest soil at high altitudes with shaded leaves, suitable for tea, coffee, spices, and limited crops.
  • Marshy or peaty soil in humid regions, submerged during the rainy season, limited extent, used for paddy cultivation.

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