[PDF] Class 10 SST NCERT Solution Ch1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE Class 10 History NCERT Solutions

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE History NCERT Solutions

Question 1
(a) Write a note on Guiseppe Mazzini.

Solution:

Giuseppe Mazzini (1807-1872) was an important Italian leader who wanted Italy to be one united country, instead of lots of small states controlled by other countries. He worked hard for this goal and inspired many people to fight for Italian independence.

Mazzini believed strongly in the idea of a republic, where the people have the power instead of a king or queen. He thought Italy should be free and independent, and he never gave up on this idea, even when others did.

In his early years, Mazzini joined a group called the Carbonari, who wanted to change things in Italy. But he got arrested in 1830 and was sent away from Italy in 1831 for trying to start a revolution. Even in exile, he didn’t give up.

He formed two secret groups, “Young Italy” and “Young Europe,” with other young people who shared his ideas. They believed that Italy should be one country, not divided into small states.

Mazzini thought that each nation should be united and free, and he worked hard to make people believe in this idea. He tried to start uprisings with Young Italy, but they didn’t succeed.

Mazzini faced challenges because he wasn’t always good at leading practically, and he didn’t fully understand how strong the opposition was. However, he still played a big role in shaping Italian patriotism and inspiring people to fight for their country’s independence.

Question 1
(b) Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour.

Solution:

Cavour was a clever leader who believed in practical politics. He made alliances with powerful countries like France and even worked with their enemies, like Prussia, when it suited his goals.

His main aim was to free northern Italy from Austrian control. He was a smart diplomat and played a big part in bringing Italy together.

Cavour didn’t like the strict rules of Austria over Italy and wanted to change things. He became the leader of Piedmont in 1852 and made its army stronger, which helped its economy grow.

In 1859, he teamed up with France to defeat Austria. Many volunteers, led by Garibaldi, also joined the fight. They later marched into South Italy, kicking out the Spanish rulers with the help of local people. This helped unite Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II.

Even though Cavour wasn’t a revolutionary or a believer in democracy, he still played a vital role in Italy’s unification. Sadly, he passed away in 1861 before Italy was completely united in 1870.

Question 1
(c) Write a note on The Greek war of independence.

Solution:

The Greek War of Independence, also called the Greek Revolution, was a successful fight for freedom by Greek rebels against the Ottoman Empire from 1821 to 1832.

The Greeks got help from countries like Russia, Great Britain, and France, while the Ottomans had support from their vassals like Egypt and Algeria.

In the 15th century, Greece became part of the Ottoman Empire. But in the 1800s, ideas of nationalism and independence were spreading across Europe. This inspired Greeks to fight for their freedom starting in 1821.

Their goal was to kick out the Turks from Europe and rebuild the old Greek empire in the East. Greek nationalists got support from exiled Greeks and many Western European nations.

Poets and artists praised Greece as the birthplace of European civilization, rallying people to support its fight against the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Even the famous poet Lord Byron raised money and joined the war effort.

Finally, in 1832, the Treaty of Constantinople recognized Greece as an independent nation. Russia, England, and France promised to protect its freedom.

Question 1
(d) Write a note on Frankfurt parliament.

Solution:

The Frankfurt Parliament met on May 18, 1848, following a liberal revolution across German states earlier that year.

It was called by German liberals in March 1848, and its members were elected by all men who could vote. They represented different political views and included many important German leaders.

The main goal was to unite Germany.

However, the traditional rivalry between German states like Austria and Prussia made it hard to make progress.

In March 1849, the parliament agreed on a constitution for a united Germany, except Austria. It proposed a government with a parliament and an emperor chosen by birthright.

Frederick William IV of Prussia was picked as emperor, but he refused to accept a crown from an assembly chosen by the people. This caused the plan to collapse.

Many members left, and the rest were forced to disband when troops intervened. Sadly, the Frankfurt Parliament didn’t achieve its goals.

Question 2.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Solution:

During the French Revolution, the revolutionaries introduced many measures to bring French people together as one. They promoted ideas like “la patrie” (the fatherland) and “le citoyen” (the citizen) to show that everyone was equal under the law.

They chose a new flag, the tricolour, to replace the old royal flag. The Estates General, a meeting of representatives, became the National Assembly, elected by active citizens.

New hymns were written, promises made, and heroes remembered, all in the name of France. They created a strong central government with the same laws for everyone.

They got rid of internal taxes and made a standard system of measurements. They also encouraged everyone to speak and write French like it was done in Paris, instead of regional dialects.

This helped create a common language for the whole nation.

Question 3.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Solution:

In the 18th and 19th centuries, artists depicted countries as if they were people.

They used female figures to represent nations, giving the abstract idea of the nation a human form.

These female figures didn’t represent any real woman. For example, in France, she was called Marianne, which was a common name and emphasized the idea of a nation belonging to the people.

Marianne’s characteristics came from symbols of liberty and the Republic, like the red cap, the tricolour flag, and the cockade.

Statues of Marianne were put up in public squares to remind people of the nation’s symbols and to encourage them to feel a connection to it. Marianne’s image was also used on coins and stamps.

Similarly, Germania was the personification of the German nation. In pictures, Germania wore a crown made of oak leaves, which symbolized heroism because the German oak tree was seen as a symbol of strength.

The importance of the way in which they were portrayed was to remind the public of their national symbols of unity and to persuade them to identify with them.

Question 4.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Solution:

In 1848, many middle-class Germans wanted to bring together the different parts of the German confederation into one nation ruled by an elected parliament. But the monarchy, military, and big landowners (called Junkers) in Prussia stopped this liberal effort.

After that, Prussia became the leader in uniting Germany. Otto von Bismarck, the main minister of Prussia, planned this with the Prussian army and government. They fought three wars in seven years – against Austria, Denmark, and France – and won each time. This finished the process of unification.

In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, became the German Emperor in a ceremony at Versailles.

Question 5.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Solution:

Napoleon introduced several changes to improve the administrative system in the territories he ruled:

  1. He issued the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic Code, which abolished privileges based on birth. This code established equality before the law and protected the right to property.
  2. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions in various regions such as the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany.
  3. The feudal system was abolished, freeing peasants from serfdom and the obligations of manorial dues.
  4. Guild restrictions in towns were removed, allowing for more economic freedom.
  5. Transportation and communication systems were improved to facilitate movement and trade.
  6. Uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency were introduced. This helped streamline commerce and finance across regions.

Despite his return to monarchy, Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles into his administrative reforms, aiming to create a more rational and efficient system.

Discuss

Question 1.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Solution:

Since the French Revolution, liberalism has stood for ending autocracy and clerical privileges, having a constitution, representative government through parliament, and protecting private property. The memory of the French Revolution inspired liberals.

In 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes took place alongside revolts by the poor, unemployed, and starving peasants and workers in Europe.

In France, the events of February 1848 led to the abdication of the monarch and the establishment of a republic with universal male suffrage.

In other European countries without independent nation-states like Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, liberals joined forces with the growing popular unrest. They demanded constitutionalism and national unification, pushing for a nation-state based on parliamentary principles, including a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of association.

Question 2.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Solution:

In Britain, the creation of the nation-state wasn’t sudden but a gradual process. Before the 18th century, there wasn’t a British nation. People identified more with their ethnic groups like English, Welsh, Scot, or Irish, each with its own culture and politics.

However, as England grew in wealth and power, it extended its influence over the other nations in the British Isles.

The English parliament, which gained power from the monarchy in 1688 after a long conflict, played a crucial role. It helped forge a nation-state with England at its core.

The Act of Union in 1707 between England and Scotland formed the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’, allowing England to assert its influence over Scotland. Consequently, the British parliament became dominated by English members, leading to the suppression of Scottish culture and institutions.

Scotland’s distinctive culture and political traditions faced suppression. Catholic clans in the Scottish Highlands suffered repression when asserting their independence.

They were prohibited from speaking Gaelic or wearing their traditional dress, and many were forcibly displaced from their homeland.

Question-3
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Solution:

After 1871, the Balkans became the main hotspot for nationalist tension in Europe.

This region, consisting of modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro, was home to various ethnic groups broadly known as the Slavs. Much of the Balkans was under Ottoman control.

The spread of romantic nationalism ideas in the Balkans, coupled with the weakening Ottoman Empire, heightened tensions. Despite Ottoman efforts at modernization and internal reforms throughout the nineteenth century, they were largely unsuccessful.

European subject nationalities within the Ottoman Empire began breaking away and declaring independence one by one.

The Balkan peoples based their quests for independence or political rights on their nationality, using historical claims to show they were once independent but had been subjugated by foreign powers. Therefore, rebellious nationalities in the Balkans saw their struggles as endeavors to regain their long-lost independence.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Choose the correct nationality of the artist Frederic Sorrieu who visualised in his painting a society made up of Democratic and Social Republic.

(a) German
(b) Swiss
(c) French
(d) American

2. ‘Nationalism’, which emerged as a force in the late 19th century, means

(a) strong devotion for one’s own country and its history and culture.
(b) strong devotion for one’s own country without appreciation for other nations.
(c) strong love for one’s own country and hatred for others.
(d) equally strong devotion for all the countries of the world.

3. Match the term with the statements given below:

(i) a society under a benevolent monarchy
(ii) a society that is unlikely to ever exist
(iii) a society under the control of a chosen few wise men
(iv) a society under Parliamentary Democracy

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii) only
(d) (iii) only

4. Pick out the correct definition to define the term ‘Plebiscite’.

(a) Plebiscite is a direct vote by which only the female members of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
(b) Plebiscite is a direct vote by the female members of a matriarchal system to accept or reject a proposal.
(c) Plebiscite is a direct vote by only a chosen few from the total population of a particular region to accept or reject a proposal.
(d) Plebiscite is a direct vote by which all the citizens of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

5. Ernst Renan believed that the existence of nations is a necessity because

(a) it ensures protection to all inhabitants.
(b) it ensures liberty to all inhabitant citizens.
(c) it ensures Parliamentary form of government to its inhabitants.
(d) it ensures jobs and good health to all its inhabitants.

6. Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna?

(a) Britain
(b) Russia
(c) Prussia
(d) Switzerland

7. The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ was:

(a) The Russian Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The American Revolution
(d) India’s First War of Independence

8. Which of the following statements about the ‘French Revolution’ are correct?

(i) After the end of the French Revolution it was proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(ii) France will have a constitutional monarchy and the new republic will be headed by a member of the royal family.
(iii) A centralised administrative system will be put in place to formulate uniform laws for all citizens.
(iv) Imposition of internal custom duties and dues will continue to exist in France.

(a) (ii) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

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