GSEB Class 11 Statistics Ch1 Collection of Data Ex 1

GSEB Solutions Class 11 Statistics Chapter 1 Collection Of Data Ex 1: Section A, Section B and Section C. Collection Of Data Ex 1

Table of contents

Collection Of Data: Section A
Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.

Who used the German word ‘Statistik’ for the first time?

(a) John Graunt
(b) William Patty
(c) Gottfried Achen Wall
(d) Gauss

Answer: (c) Gottfried Achen Wall

Question 2.

Who was one of the giants of initial results of probability theory among the following?

(a) John Graunt
(b) Laplace
(c) Fisher
(d) J. Neyman

Answer: (b) Laplace

Question 3.

Who was the founder of mathematical statistics?

(a) Karl Pearson
(b) Laplace
(c) Mahalanobis
(d) Gosset

Answer: (a) Karl Pearson

Question 4.

Out of the following, which one is an example of primary data?

(a) Data collected from the records of Municipality.
(b) Data collected from a published journal of an industry.
(c) Data collected from the website.
(d) Data collected by NSSO.

Answer: (d) Data collected by NSSO.

Question 5.

Which one of the following is an Example of qualitative data?

(a) Income category
(b) Production (in tons)
(c) Age of workers (in years)
(d) Height of persons (in meters)

Answer: (a) Income category

Question 6.

Which one of the following is true for secondary data?

(a) Should never be used.
(b) Use after careful verification.
(c) It is not necessary to check while using it.
(d) Secondary data itself is primary data.

Answer: (b) Use after careful verification

Question 7.

Which one of the following is true for primary data?

(a) Primary data is always more reliable as compared to secondary data.
(b) Primary data is less reliable as compared to secondary data.
(c) Primary data depends on whether the data is collected carefully or not.
(d) Primary data can be obtained from government publications.

Answer: (a) Primary data is always more reliable as compared to secondary data.

Question 8.

Which of the following statements is true?

(a) The data collected by direct inquiry may be more accurate.
(b) The data collected by direct inquiry may be less accurate.
(c) The data collected by direct inquiry may not be reliable.
(d) The data obtained through email is known as the data obtained by direct inquiry.

Answer: (a) The data collected by direct inquiry may be more accurate.

Question 9.

Which of the following is a proper method of getting supplementary information about the personal characteristics of the respondents?

(a) Questionnaire by post
(b) Direct inquiry
(c) Indirect inquiry
(d) From newspapers

Answer: (b) Direct inquiry

Question 10.

Which method will be costly when the number of respondents is more and spread over a large area?

(a) Questionnaire by post
(b) Indirect inquiry
(c) Direct inquiry
(d) By telephone

Answer: (c) Direct inquiry

Collection Of Data Ex 1: Section B
Short Answer Questions

Que 1. Who was the founder of the Indian Statistical Institute?

Answer:
The founder of the Indian Statistical Institute was the well-known Indian Statistician Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis.

Que 2. Define population.

Answer:
A population is a set of all the units under study; for example, in a population census, all the citizens of the country constitute the population.

Que 3. Define sample.

Answer:

A sample comprises units selected from the population based on a specific criterion; for example, selecting a sample of 90 students randomly from a group of 900 students in a school.

Que 4. Define qualitative data.

Answer:
Qualitative data refers to a set of observations on attributes, such as the data on the education level of workers in a factory.

Que 5. Define quantitative data.

Answer:
Quantitative data comprises observations on numerical variables; for example, data on the monthly wages of workers in a factory.

Que 6. Define primary data.

Answer:
Primary data is the data originally collected by any authorized agency or investigators for the first time, like the data on the Indian population collected by NSSO every ten years.

Que 7. Define secondary data.

Answer:
Secondary data refers to data used by an authorized agency or investigator that was originally collected by another agency or investigator; for instance, using population census data for a study makes it secondary data for that study.

Que 8. State the methods of collecting primary data.

Answer:
The methods of collecting primary data include:
1. Direct method of inquiry
2. Indirect method of inquiry
3. Method of the questionnaire

Collection Of Data Ex 1: Section C
Descriptive Questions

Que 1. State the definition of statistics given by Croxton and Cowden.

Answer:
The definition of statistics given by Croxton and Cowden is as follows: “Statistics is the science which deals with the collection, analysis and interpretation of numerical data.”

Que 2. What is data?

Answer:
Data is the set of all observations obtained by inspecting a variable characteristic defined on population units or sample units.

Que 3. What is a questionnaire?

Answer:
A questionnaire is a list of questions relevant to the object of the study, with space provided between the questions for the answers.

Que 4. What is unpublished data?

Answer:
Unpublished data refers to statistical data that may not be published. It can be collected on request from the unpublished internal records of private and public organizations or drawn from research papers, articles, essays, etc.

Que 5. What is a variable characteristic?

Answer:
A variable characteristic is a feature that varies from unit to unit of a population or sample. It can be either numerical or non-numerical. The non-numerical variable characteristic is called an attribute, while the numerical one is called a numeric variable.

Que 6. What is an attribute?

Answer:
An attribute is a qualitative variable that is non-numerical. Examples include profession, marital status, level of education, sex, honesty, and habit of smoking, which cannot be expressed in numerical terms.

Collection Of Data Ex 1: Section – D
Descriptive Answer

Que 1. What is the role of Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis in the development of statistics in India?

Answer:

Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis played a pivotal role in shaping the field of statistics in India. His notable contributions include:

Founding ISI (1931):

Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis started the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in 1931 in Kolkata. ISI became a hub for advancing statistical research and education in India.

First Post-graduate Course (1941):

Mahalanobis recognized the need for specialized education and began the first post-graduate course in statistics at Kolkata University in 1941. This laid the groundwork for training statisticians in India.

National Sample Survey (1950):

Mahalanobis introduced the National Sample Survey in 1950, later known as NSSO. This initiative revolutionized systematic data collection in India, aiding evidence-based policymaking.

Second Five Year Plan (1953):

Using the operations research system at ISI, Mahalanobis outlined the plan for India’s second five-year plan in 1953. This showcased his practical use of statistical methods in economic planning.

Que 2. State the difference between qualitative and quantitative data.

Answer:

AspectQualitative DataQuantitative Data
NatureObservations on qualitative variables form qualitative data.Observations on numerical variables form quantitative data.
RepresentationQualitative data is non-numeric and described without numbers.Quantitative data is numeric and expressed with numerical values.
ExampleAttributes like sex or study standards represent qualitative data.Numeric variables like age, weight, or height represent quantitative data.

Que 3.Give some examples of primary data.

Answer:

Examples of primary data include:

  • Population Census data in India collected by NSSO.
  • Indian agriculture data collected by IASR.
  • Postgraduate student data collected by Gujarat University.
  • Financial data of India collected by RBI.
  • Textile industry data in Gujarat collected by ATIRA.

Que 4. Discuss the method of questionnaire.

Answer:

  • A questionnaire is a list of logically arranged questions related to the study, with spaces provided for answers.
  • The method of obtaining information using such a questionnaire is termed the “method of questionnaire.”
  • This method is particularly useful for extensive fields of inquiry.
  • Information can be collected through questionnaires either:
    • by post or
    • by enumerators
  • The effectiveness of this method relies on the careful construction of the questionnaire.
  • Due to significant time and cost savings, it is considered the most economical method of inquiry.
  • The method can be applied in both direct and indirect inquiry scenarios.

Que 5. Discuss questionnaire by post.

Answer:

In questionnaire by post, a questionnaire is sent to respondents by post.

  • In this approach, a questionnaire is sent to respondents through the mail.
  • A letter accompanies the questionnaire, asking respondents to complete and return it within a specified timeframe.
  • A pre-addressed envelope is provided with a postage stamp for the respondents to send back the filled questionnaire.
  • Questions in the questionnaire must be clear, short, simple, relevant, and self-explanatory since respondents answer the questions themselves.
  • This method is particularly useful for collecting data from educated and responsible individuals.

Que 6. Discuss questionnaire by enumerators.

Answer:

  • Enumerators, or survey agents, personally meet respondents to administer and complete the questionnaire.
  • Enthusiastic, polite, honest, and efficient enumerators can gather accurate responses by providing additional information as needed.
  • Enumerators are advised to maintain a friendly atmosphere, avoiding controversy or disrespect towards respondents.
  • This method is effective whether respondents are educated or uneducated, simplifying the data collection process.

Que 7. Describe the method of collecting secondary data from unpublished sources.

Answer:

Unpublished secondary data refers to statistical information not made public by private or public organizations or researchers.

  • This data can be gathered upon request directly from the records of private and public organizations.
  • Unpublished data can also be obtained from research papers, articles, and essays that haven’t been formally published.

Que 8. Discuss some applications of statistics.

Answer:

Statistics, now a recognized part of scientific methods, is valuable not just for numbers (quantitative data) but also for dealing with non-numeric (qualitative data) information as its scope expands.

  • During World War II, a branch of statistics called Operations Research (OR) assisted in military projects. In India, OR is used for national planning, especially in crafting five-year plans.
  • OR acts as a smart planner for the government, helping maximize income per person with minimal resources.
  • In the business world, OR guides decisions on optimal resource use, ensuring businesses get the most value for their investments.
  • OR aids stores in deciding how much inventory to keep for future demand, preventing unnecessary space or money wastage.

Collection Of Data Ex 1: Section – E
Very Long Answers

Que 1. State the difference between primary and secondary data.

Primary DataSecondary Data
Collected for the first time, hence original.Not original; data collected previously and reused by others.
Collected directly on the units under investigation.Obtained from the primary data, often aggregated or summarized.
Original, extensive, often in raw form, requiring classification and tabulation.May be in organized and tabulated form, usually classified.
Involves large resources, manpower, and monetary costs.Cost-effective in terms of time, energy, and monetary resources.

Que 2. Discuss the method of collecting primary data by direct inquiry.

The method of collecting primary data by direct inquiry involves investigators or appointed enumerators personally visiting the field to gather necessary information.

This approach is exemplified in various areas such as market research, political surveys, health studies, educational research, consumer product feedback, and census data collection.

For Example:

  • Market Research: Involves visiting retail stores and interviewing customers.
  • Health Studies: Require inquiring about lifestyle habits and visiting individuals in their homes.
  • Educational Research: Includes visiting schools and interviewing teachers, students, and administrators.
  • Consumer Product Feedback: Involves sending representatives to engage with consumers and gather feedback on product features.

Although considered reliable, this method has the drawback of being time-consuming due to the necessity of personal visits, making it suitable for limited areas of inquiry.

Furthermore, the data collected may be influenced by the biases and prejudices of the enumerator, potentially resulting in variations in practical applications.

Que 3. Discuss the method of collecting primary data by indirect inquiry.

The method of collecting primary data by indirect inquiry is useful when face challenges such as a large field of inquiry, time constraints, complex information, and high costs associated with direct inquiry.

This method involves collecting information through a third party familiar with the inquiry rather than directly contacting respondents.

The reliability of data obtained indirectly depends on the competence, honesty, and experience of enumerators and third-party sources.

  • Reading Habits in Educational Settings: Librarian insights on students’ reading habits are gathered instead of personally meeting the students.
  • Consumer Preferences in Retail: Retail staff provide feedback on consumer preferences as a substitute for direct customer interactions.
  • Employee Satisfaction through Human Resources: HR personnel offer input on employee satisfaction, bypassing direct interviews with employees.
  • Market Trends via Industry Experts: Industry experts are consulted for insights into market trends, avoiding the need for extensive direct surveys.
  • Health Information through Healthcare Providers: Data on lifestyle habits is collected from healthcare providers, eliminating the necessity of direct interactions with individuals.

Que 4. Discuss the method of collecting secondary data.

There are mainly two sources of collecting secondary data:

  1. Published Secondary Data
  2. Unpublished Secondary Data

Published Secondary Data:

  • Government Publications:
    • Central and state governments release data on census, prices, imports, exports, and plans through CSO, NSSO, and ICAR.
  • Semi-Government Publications:
    • Entities like LIC, State Electricity Boards, and City Municipalities regularly publish various data.
  • Publications of International Institutes:
    • International organizations like UNO, IMF, ILO, and WHO provide valuable secondary data.
  • Reports of Research Organizations:
    • Research institutions such as ATIRA, PRL, Tata Research Centre offer useful data.
  • Local Self-Government Institutions and Autonomous Educational Institutions:
    • Municipal Corporations, Jilla Panchayats, and Educational Institutions supply secondary data.
  • Publications of Business and Commerce Organizations:
    • Chambers of Commerce, worker’s unions, and nationalized banks publish relevant data.
  • Newspapers and Periodicals:
    • Periodicals like EPW, Commerce, Business India, and newspapers serve as significant sources.

Unpublished Secondary Data:

  • Institutional Registers:
    • Unpublished statistical data kept by institutions can be accessed through direct requests.
  • Research Papers and Private Publications:
    • Unpublished data includes research papers, dissertations, and monographs from institutions like IIM.

Que 5. Discuss origin and growth of statistics.

Answer:

The origin and growth of statistics can be described as follows ;
Origin of Statistics:

Origin of Statistics:

  • India’s significant contribution to statistics dates back to the Mauryan Empire (321-296 BC).
  • During the Mughal Empire, Akbar (1596-’97) mentioned a statistical system in ‘Ain-I-Akbari’ written by Abul Fazal.
  • The term ‘Statistik’ was first used by Gottfried Achen Wall in 1749.
  • By the 18th century, ‘statistics’ referred to the systematic collection of state data.
  • The formal introduction of statistics occurred in the Encyclopedia Britannica in 1797.
  • In the 17th and 18th centuries, Laplace and Gauss presented initial principles on probability.
  • Karl Pearson founded Mathematical Statistics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Gosset and Fisher developed modern statistical science in the 1910s and 1920s.

Growth of Statistics in India:

  • Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis significantly contributed to the growth of statistics in India.
  • He founded the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in 1931 in Kolkata.
  • The first postgraduate course in Statistics started at Kolkata University in 1941.
  • In 1950, Mahalanobis initiated the National Sample Survey (NSS), later named NSSO.
  • The Indian Agriculture Statistics Research Institute (LASRI) has contributed to statistical development.
  • Croxton and Cowden define statistics as the science dealing with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data.
  • Statistics is now applicable to both quantitative and qualitative data.
  • Statistics is considered a part of scientific methods and includes Operations Research (OR).
  • OR, developed during World War II, found applications in industries and government projects, increasing the scope and importance of statistics.

Que 6. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of direct inquiry.

Advantages of Direct Inquiry:

  • Accuracy and Confidence: Provides accurate and reliable data, and the presence of an enumerator builds confidence in respondents.
  • Supplementary Information: Enumerators can gather additional, useful information during the inquiry.
  • Effective for Limited Fields: Particularly useful for focused inquiries in limited fields.
  • Handling Complex Questions: Personal interaction facilitates obtaining data on complex questions and personal details.
  • Assurance Against Misuse: Respondents may feel assured that personal information won’t be misused.

Disadvantages of Direct Inquiry:

  • Ineffectiveness for Extensive Inquiry: Less effective for extensive inquiries due to time and resource demands.
  • Time, Energy, and Cost: Involves substantial time, energy, and financial investment.
  • Dependency on Enumerator: Reliability depends on enumerator competence, training, and honesty.
  • Potential for Bias: Enumerators’ biases can introduce subjectivity, affecting data reliability

Que 7. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of indirect inquiry.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Indirect Inquiry:

Advantages:

  • Suitability for Extensive Inquiry:
    • Most suitable for extensive fields of inquiry and multiple types of objects.
  • Effectiveness in Handling Differences of Opinion:
    • More effective when there are differences of opinion among informants.
  • Cost, Time, and Energy Efficiency:
    • Involves less cost, time, and energy as data is collected indirectly.
  • Enhanced Accuracy with Experienced Personnel:
    • Accuracy is enhanced when experienced, neutral, and technically qualified individuals manage the inquiry.
  • Government Department Utility:
    • Highly useful for government departments to collect diverse information efficiently.

Disadvantages:

  1. Reliability Issues Due to Prejudice:
    • Information may be less reliable if the source providing information has prejudices or a biased attitude.
  2. Dependence on Honesty and Efficiency:
    • Becomes useless if the third party providing information is dishonest or inefficient in providing accurate data.

Que 8. Discuss the characteristics of an ideal questionnaire.

CharacteristicsDescription
TitleAppropriate, clear title to avoid confusion.
Number of QuestionsSufficient, concise questions aligned with the inquiry’s purpose for better response rates.
Order of QuestionsLogical sequencing for quick, spontaneous responses.
Language of QuestionsSimple, unambiguous language to ensure clarity.
Length of QuestionsShort, clear questions to prevent respondent boredom and ensure accuracy.
Time FrameAvoids remote past questions, ensuring relevance.
ConfidentialityMinimizes personal inquiries, framed with caution, and ensures confidentiality for honest responses.
TrialSubjected to a trial for practicality, allowing adjustments for a perfect questionnaire before widespread use.

Que 9. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire by post.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaire by Post:

Advantages:

  1. Simplicity and Cost-effectiveness:
    • Simple and cost-effective method that provides a large amount of information quickly.
  2. Efficiency with Educated Respondents:
    • More efficient when collecting information from educated and responsible respondents.
  3. Reach to Remote Areas:
    • Enables data collection from areas that may be difficult to reach personally or by telephone.

Disadvantages:

  1. Limitation with Illiterate Respondents:
    • Not useful when respondents are illiterate or lack a sense of cooperation.
  2. Low Response Rate:
    • Some respondents may not bother to read or return the questionnaire, leading to a low response rate.
  3. Verification Challenges:
    • Difficult to verify the accuracy of the information provided.
  4. Fear of Misuse:
    • Educated respondents may fear misuse of information, leading to reluctance in providing written responses.
  5. Potential Loss or Delay:
    • Risk of loss or delay in obtaining information due to laziness or negligence of respondents.
  6. Lack of Assistance:
    • Limited assistance may result in a lack of clarification for instructions or questions, potentially affecting the accuracy of responses.

Que 10. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire by enumerators.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaire by Enumerators:

Advantages:

  • Complete and Relevant Information:
    • Enumerators can obtain complete, correct, and more relevant information directly from respondents.
  • Effective Communication with Illiterate Respondents:
    • Enumerators can effectively communicate with illiterate respondents, providing proper explanations to ensure accurate responses.
  • Personal Collection Eliminates Loss:
    • Loss of questionnaire or incomplete responses is avoided as enumerators collect information personally.
  • Efficiency for Vast Areas:
    • Inquiries covering large areas can yield accurate information within a stipulated timeframe.
  • On-Spot Resolution of Doubts:
    • Enumerators can quickly resolve any doubts or questions arising in the minds of respondents on the spot.

Disadvantages:

  • High Cost for Large Areas:
    • Employing a large number of enumerators for extensive areas increases the cost of data collection.
  • Challenges in Enumerator Training:
    • Training enumerators, especially if expert ones are unavailable, can be a challenging task.
  • Need for Supervisors:
    • Appointing supervisors to monitor enumerators’ work increases the overall cost of the inquiry.
  • Potential Lack of Cooperation:
    • If respondents are uncooperative, uneducated, or impolite, they may not provide correct information to enumerators.
  • Possible Delays:
    • Delays may occur due to the need for enumerators to settle and coordinate convenient times with respondents.

Que 11. Discuss what types of precautions should be taken while using secondary data.

PrecautionsDescription
Reliability CheckVerify data reliability, favoring authoritative sources over biased private organizations.
Examine PurposeAssess data’s original purpose to ensure alignment with intended use.
Understand CollectionFamiliarize with data collection methods, recognizing limitations and biases.
Consider TimeNote the time duration of data collection for relevance in current circumstances.
Scope of DataAscertain data scope, including region, definitions, and unit selection.
Limitations AwarenessUnderstand data limitations for informed decision-making.
Compare AlternativesCompare alternative data sources for accuracy and relevance.

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