Sex Ratio in India 2024: State Wise List, Rank and Govt Policies

sex ratio in india

Sex Ratio in India 2024: The distribution of men and women in a population is a crucial indicator of societal dynamics. The sex ratio, reflecting the number of girls per 1,000 boys, offers insights into gender equity and impacts various aspects such as mortality rates, migration patterns, marriage trends, and economic dynamics.

A ratio of 1,000 signifies gender balance, while deviations indicate imbalances, with more than 1,000 indicating a surplus of girls and less than 1,000 signaling a deficit.

Understanding the sex ratio is pivotal for examining the fairness and functioning of society. And here we have provided the analysis for Sex Ration In India 2024.

Sex Ratio In India 2024: Definition, Types and Factors

Sex Ratio, also known as Gender Ratio, denotes the proportion of males to females in a population. This ratio is critical for understanding demographic dynamics.

Fisher’s principle suggests a 1:1 ratio for most sexually reproducing species, but real-world ratios can deviate significantly.

This article explores the concept of sex ratio, with a particular emphasis on its situation in India, offering essential insights for candidates preparing for the IAS Exam.

The sex ratio in India, measured as females per 1000 males, witnessed changes from the 2011 Census to the 2024 NFHS-5 Survey.

In rural areas, there has been a notable increase from 949 in 2011 to 1037 in 2024.

Similarly, urban areas experienced a shift from 929 in 2011 to 985 in 2024. At the national level, the sex ratio rose from 943 in 2011 to 1020 in 2024, reflecting evolving demographic patterns.

Sex Ratio in India 2024
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)2011 Census2024 (NFHS-5 Survey)
Rural9491037
Urban929985
India9431020

Useful Insights about Sex Ration Of India 2024

Highest Sex Ratio in India
Kerala1084
Tamil Nadu995
Andhra Pradesh992
Lowest Sex Ratio in India
Haryana877
Jammu and Kashmir883
Sikkim889
Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) – Top Performers
Mizoram971
Meghalaya970
Chhattisgarh964
Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) – Lowest Performers
Haryana830
Punjab846
Jammu and Kashmir859
Union Territories (UTs) – Top Overall Sex Ratio
Puducherry1038
Lakshadweep946
Andaman and Nicobar Islands878
Union Territories (UTs) – Lowest Overall Sex Ratio
Daman and Diu618
Dadra and Nagar Haveli775
Chandigarh818
States and UTs with Declining Overall Sex Ratios
Bihar
Jammu and Kashmir
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Lakshadweep
Improving Child Sex Ratios (0-6 years) in Census 2011
Punjab798 to 846, +57 points
Haryana819 to 830, +11 points
Himachal Pradesh896 to 906, +10 points
Chandigarh845 to 867, +22 points
Gujarat883 to 886, +3 points
Tamil Nadu942 to 946, +4 points
Mizoram964 to 971, +7 points
Andaman & Nicobar Islands957 to 966, +9 points
Telangana Demographics (formed in 2014)
Total Population351.94 lakhs
Male Population177.04 lakhs
Female Population174.90 lakhs
Sex Ratio (Female per 1000 Males)988
Child Sex Ratio933

Types of Sex Ratio

Sex ratio is categorized into four subdivisions based on the age of the population:

  • Primary sex ratio — ratio at fertilization
  • Secondary sex ratio — ratio at birth
  • Tertiary sex ratio — ratio in sexually mature organisms
  • Quaternary sex ratio — ratio in post-reproductive organisms

These categories, while somewhat subjective, provide a nuanced understanding of sex ratio variations across different life stages.

Types Other NameDefinitionExample or Context
Primary Sex RatioRatio at conceptionReveals the initial distribution of males and females during early development, considering abortion, miscarriage, and live birth data.Examining the primary sex ratio helps us understand gender dynamics from the very beginning of life, offering insights into initial conceptions.
Secondary Sex RatioRatio at birthThe balance between male and female births, providing insights into natural gender distribution among newborns.An example of the secondary sex ratio is 105:100, indicating 105 male births for every 100 female births, offering a snapshot of gender at birth.
Tertiary Sex RatioRatio among sexually mature individuals aged 20 and aboveIndicates the proportion of males to females in this age group.In a population with a tertiary sex ratio of 110:100, there are 110 sexually mature males for every 100 females aged 20 and above.

This sheds light on gender dynamics in the adult population.

Factors for the Declining Sex Ratio in India:

Several factors contribute to the declining sex ratio in India, including:

  • Sex selection abortion
  • Neglect at birth or childhood
  • Cultural preference for male children
  • Failures in implementing the Prenatal Conception and Prenatal Determination Act (PC-PNDT) of 1994

The PC-PNDT aims to prevent healthcare officials from revealing the gender of the child, but its effectiveness is hampered by poor implementation and exploitation of loopholes.

Societal Prejudices and Economic Factors:

Prejudices towards the female child, driven by cultural beliefs and economic considerations such as dowry, contribute to a societal preference for male children.

This preference can lead to financial burdens on families with daughters and, in extreme cases, resentment against female offspring.

The surplus of males in society can result in societal instability, violence, and antisocial behavior.

Steps to Address the Declining Gender Ratio:

To counter the declining sex ratio, the government has implemented initiatives like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao since 2015.

Additionally, the Ministry of Women and Child Development and the Ministry of Education have proposed measures such as:

  • Making education affordable and accessible
  • Conducting gender sensitization campaigns
  • Ensuring women’s safety on public transport
  • Reaching out to young people to reduce population momentum

Insights from the Historical Trend of Sex Ratio in India:

sex ration in India from 1901 to 2021
  • Long-Term Decline:
    • The sex ratio in India has consistently decreased since 1901, indicating a historical preference for boys over girls.
  • Magnitude of Decline:
    • From 972 females per 1,000 males in 1901, the sex ratio dropped significantly to 940 in 2011, highlighting a substantial gender imbalance at birth.
  • Post-Independence Trends:
    • After independence, the decline persisted for about two decades, reaching its lowest point in 1971 with a sex ratio of 930 females per 1,000 males.
  • Minor Improvements:
    • While there have been minor changes since then, the issue of fewer girls being born still demands attention. The 2021 sex ratio shows improvement at 1,020 females per 1,000 males.
  • Concerns for Gender Equality:
    • The data underscores historical preferences for male children, posing challenges to gender equality. Continuous efforts are needed to address societal and cultural factors contributing to this preference.
  • Government Initiatives:
    • Ongoing efforts, possibly through government initiatives and awareness campaigns, are crucial to addressing root causes leading to imbalanced sex ratios.
  • Importance of Continued Action:
    • The historical trend signals a deep-rooted problem requiring sustained action and policy interventions. Continued efforts are crucial for fostering a balanced and equitable sex ratio in India, ensuring a fair and inclusive society for future

Sex Ratio in India from 1901 to 2021

Sex Ratio in India from 1901 to 2021
S.N.Census YearSex Ratio (females/1000 males)
1.1901972
2.1911964
3.1921955
4.1931950
5.1941945
6.1951946
7.1961941
8.1971930
9.1981934
10.1991927
11.2001933
12.2011943
13.20211,020

States and UTs Rank Wise Sex Ratio In India

Below is showing the Rank Wise Sex Ration Of States and UTs as per census 2021.

Sex Ratio of States and UTs Data
State/UT RankName of state or Union TerritorySex Ratio  of India 2021
1.Kerala1084
2.Puducherry1038
3.Tamil Nadu995
4.Andhra Pradesh992
5.Chhattisgarh991
6.Manipur987
7.Meghalaya986
8.Odisha978
9.Mizoram975
10.Himachal Pradesh974
11.Karnataka968
12.Goa968
13.Uttrakhand963
14.Tripura961
15.Assam954
16.Jharkhand947
17.West Bengal947
18.Lakshadweep946
19.Nagaland931
20.Madhya Pradesh930
21.Rajasthan926
22.Maharashtra925
23.Arunachal Pradesh920
24.Gujarat918
25.Bihar916
26.Uttar Pradesh908
27.Punjab893
28.Sikkim889
29.Jammu& Kashmir883
30.Andaman & Nicobar islands878
31.Haryana877
32.NCT of Delhi866
33.Chandigarh818
34.Dadra and Nagar Haveli775
35.Daman and Diu618
OverallIndia943

The Highest Sex Ratio In the Indian States

Highest Sex Ratio in the Indian States
Rank.StatesSex Ratio
1Kerala1121
2Rajasthan1099
3Bihar1090
4Tamil Nadu1088
5Manipur1066
6Odisha1063
7Jharkhand1050
8Telangana1049
9West Bengal1049
10Andra1045

Lowest Sex Ratio in the Indian States 

Lowest Sex Ratio in the Indian States 
SNoStatesSex Ratio
1Haryana926
2Punjab938
3Gujrat965
4Maharashtra966
5Madhya Pradesh970
6Sikkim990
7Arunachal Pradesh997

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